Three Facts About Earth
01. What it is like inside the Earth?
The earth is made up of three parts which can be compared to the pars of an apple. The apple’s skin is like the earth’s crust. The part we eat is like the earth’s mantle or heavy coat. Where we find the seeds is like the earth’s core. The inside of earth is not like jelly as people think.
The earth could also be compared to an egg, with the shell as the crust, the white as the mantle and the yolk as the core.
An uneven crust:
The crust is as thick as 20 miles (35 km) beneath land but only about 3 miles (5 km) thick under the oceans.
Part of the mantle is made of rock so hot that it has meIted. This molten rock can seep through cracks in the crust and pour out of volcanoes. It then called lava. When fiery lava cools, it turns hard as stone.
Scientists believe that the core of the earth is made up of very heavy metals like iron and nickel. The outer core is made of molten rock. The inner core might be liquid too, but scientists don’t know for certain.
Molten rock in the mantle pushes through the ocean floor and forms plates that flow both ways. When plates meet, one is pushed beneath the other, making trenches and causing earthquakes.
- Parent you should know: the earth has three parts a crust, mantle and core. The nature of the inside of the earth is determined from waves transmitted during earthquakes, which travel at different speeds under varying conditions. The mantle extends 1.800 miles (2,900 km) down from the crust. It is in constant flux, which causes endless shifting of the crustal plates. The outer core is molten, and the inner core may also be. Both are probably iron and nickel. Estimates of the core’s temperature range from 4,000′ to 8,000′ F. (2.2000° to 4,400° C)
02. What Kind of Material Are the Earth and Planets Made Of?
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are made mostly of rock. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are made of different gases. Pluto, the most distant planet, is like an icy rock
The moon is made about the same as the earth. Mars, Venus and Mercury are just about as hard as the earth is. These planets appear as stars in the night sky.
Jupiter is made mostly of gas, but it’s hard at the center. Neptune, Saturn and Uranus are the same like Jupiter
Pluto is the farthest planet from the sun. It takes it 248 years to orbit the sun. Only about one fifth as large as Earth, it is dark and cold. The temperature drops to as low as minus 360° F (-220° C). Some of its Surface is coated with methane ice. When it is at its farthest point from the sun, Pluto is about 50 times as far from the Sun as Earth is.
- Parent you should know: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are closest to the Sun. These four are called Earth-type planets because they are made of hard rock. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are farther out and are called Jupiter-type. They are larger than Earth-type planets and are made of gas, mostly hydrogen, methane or helium. Some of these exist as gases but others may be in solid or liquid form.
03. Why Does a Compass Point North?
The inside of the earth acts like a strong magnet. One end of the magnet is near the North Pole. The other end is near the South Pole. A compass has a needle that’s a magnet. The earth’s
magnet attracts the needle so it always points north and south.
How to use compass: A compass needle always points north. Once you know which way North is you can figure out East, West and South.
A ship’s compass: Long ago, sailing ships used magnetic compasses to help them find out where they were and how to get to where they wanted to go.
If you hold a compass when you are near the North Pole, the needle of the compass will try to point straight to the ground.
- Parent you should know: The whole earth acts like a major magnet the North Pole goes about as S pole and the South Pole as the N Pole. A compass needlepoints toward the North since it is the N pole of the compass and is pulled in by the S Pole of the earth. This doesn’t imply that there is really a magnet as such inside the earth. Or maybe an electric flow in the earth produces a magnetic field.