July 30, 2021

Basic Linux and VI Command for Absolute Beginners!

Files and Directory Commands in Linux and Unix

1. ls                            Directory listing

2. ls -al                         Formatted listing with hidden files

3. ls -lt                         Sorting the Formatted listing by time modification

4. cd dir                       Change directory to dir

5. cd                            Change to home directory

6. pwd                         Show current working directory

7. mkdir dir                 Creating a directory dir

8. cat >file                   Places the standard input into the file

9. more file                  Output the contents of the file

10. head file                Output the first 10 lines of the file

11. tail file                   Output the last 10 lines of the file

12. tail -f file                Output the contents of file as it grows,starting with the last 10 lines

13. touch file               Create or update file

14. rm file                    Deleting the file

15. rm -r dir                 Deleting the directory

16. rm -f file                Force to remove the file

17. rm -rf dir               Force to remove the directory dir

18. cp file1 file2          Copy the contents of file1 to file2

19. cp -r dir1 dir2        Copy dir1 to dir2;create dir2 if not present

20. mv file1 file2         Rename or move file1 to file2,if file2 is an existing directory

21. ln -s file link           Create symbolic link to file

Process Management commands

1. ps                            To display the currently working processes

2. top                           Display all running process

3. kill pid                      Kill the process with given pid

4. killall proc                Kill all the process named proc

5. pkill pattern            Will kill all processes matching the pattern

6. bg                            List stopped or background jobs,resume a stopped job in the background

7. fg                             Brings the most recent job to foreground

8. fg n                          Brings job n to the foreground

How to issue File permission

1.chmod octal file

Change the permission of file to octal,which can be found separately for user,group,world by adding,

• 4-read(r)

• 2-write(w)

• 1-execute(x)

Searching Files or patterns

1. grep pattern file                 Search for pattern in file

2. grep -r pattern dir               Search recursively for pattern in dir

3. command | grep pattern                Search in the output of a command pattern

4. locate file                                        Find all instances of file

5.find . -name filename – Searches in the current directory (represented by a period) and below it, for files and directories with names starting with filename

6.pgrep pattern – Searches for all the named processes , that matches with the pattern and, by default, returns their ID

System Information commands

1. date                         Show the current date and time

2. cal                            Show this month’s calender

3. uptime S                  how current uptime

4. w                             Display who is on line

5. whoami                   Who you are logged in as

6. finger user               Display information about user

7. uname -a                 Show kernel information

 8. cat /proc/cpuinfo   Cpu information

 9. cat proc/meminfo Memory information

 10. man command     Show the manual for command

 11. df                          Show the disk usage

 12. du                         Show directory space usage

 13. free                       Show memory and swap usage

 14. whereis app         Show possible locations of app

 15. which app             Show which applications will be run by default

Compression use Tar and Zip commands

 1. tar cf file.tar file                 Create tar named file.tar containing file

 2. tar xf file.tar                       Extract the files from file.tar

 3. tar czf file.tar.gz files          Create a tar with Gzip compression

 4. tar xzf file.tar.gz                 Extract a tar using Gzip

 5. tar cjf file.tar.bz2               Create tar with Bzip2 compression

 6. tar xjf file.tar.bz2               Extract a tar using Bzip2

 7. gzip file                               Compresses file and renames it to file.gz

 8. gzip -d file.gz                      Decompresses file.gz back to file

Network Commands

 1. ping host                            Ping host and output results

 2. whois domain                    Get whois information for domains

 3. dig domain                         Get DNS information for domain

 4. dig -x host                          Reverse lookup host

 5. wget file                             Download file

 6. wget -c file                         Continue a stopped download

When use the command line use the Shortcuts

1. ctrl+c                       Halts the current command

2. ctrl+z                       Stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background

3. ctrl+d                       Logout the current session, similar to exit

4. ctrl+w                      Erases one word in the current line

5. ctrl+u                       Erases the whole line

6. ctrl+r                       Type to bring up a recent command

7. !!                              Repeats the last command

8. exit                          Logout the current session

Rating: 1 out of 5.

Basic VI Commands

1. vi filename              Create or Edit filename starting at line 1

2. vi -r filename          Recover filename that was being edited when system crashed

1. : x                 Quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation

2. :wq              Quit vi, writing out modified file to file named in original invocation

3. :q                 Quit or exit vi

4. :q!                Quit vi even though latest changes have not been saved for this vi call

1. j or [or down-arrow]           Move cursor down one line

2. k[or up-arrow]                    Move cursor up one line

3. h or [or left-arrow]              Move cursor left one line l or[or right-arrow] Move cursor right one line

4. 0(zero)                                Move cursor to start of current line(the one with the arrow)

5. $                                          Move cursor to end of the current line

6. w                                         Move cursor to beginning of next word

7. b                                          Move cursor back to beginning of preceding word

8. :0 <> or 1G                         Move cursor to first line in file

9. :n <> or nG                         Move cursor to line n in file

10. :$<> or G                          Move cursor to last line in file

Rating: 1 out of 5.



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